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"Beware of Wales, Christ Jesus must us keep,
That it make not our child's child to weep,
Nor us also, if so it go this way,
By unwariness; since that many a day,
Men have been afraid of there rebellion"


"In Wales, the heritage of complete conquest brought its own problems, notably a resentment which, in the unsettled economic climate of the late 14th century, was focused on the Anglicized boroughs and directed against officials in Church and State who were mostly from the English border shires or even further afield. This resentment was channelled into rebellion by Owain Glyndwr from 1400 and after this unpleasant experience most Englishmen regarded Wales with suspicion and fear."

The Oxford Illustrated History of Britain


"In discussing the development of Edwardian towns in north Wales, it is important to remember that these new "settlers" faced tremendous obstacles in what was basically hostile territory. Edward's new towns were populated with English settlers in the midst of defeated native Welsh populations. In the early years especially, English settlers had to be on constant alert against attack, and often the castle was the last place of refuge. In many instances, buildings and crops within and outside towns were destroyed as the result of raids by a frustrated native population. In time, most of Edward's new towns did achieve a kind of uneasy peace with their neighbors, however Welshmen were often forbidden to enter a town or conduct trade within its walls or in the surrounding districts. In some cases, if a Welshman was found within the town walls after sundown, he could be taken to the castle and hanged. Restrictions against the Welsh varied in severity from town to town, but these unequal privileges caused tensions and frustrations that culminated in the Glyn Dwr revolt, a remarkable national uprising during the early years of the 15th century. The burgesses may well have enjoyed special privileges within the walls of Edward's new towns, but those privileges often came at a terrible price.

Nevertheless, although Edward's castles in Wales were at times little more than lonely outposts and mere symbols of English control in hostile territory, they were in fact extremely effective in preventing the Welsh from permanently reversing Edward's victories of 1277 and 1282 and regaining control of the region. Edward's castles time and time again proved their worth, never more so than during the Glyn Dwr revolt."

Jeffrey L. Thomas


"Since 1410 most Welsh people most of the time have abandoned any idea of independence as unthinkable. But since 1410 most Welsh people, at some time or another, if only in some secret corner of the mind, have been "out with Owain and his barefoot scrubs." For the Welsh mind is still haunted by it's lightning-flash vision of a people that was free."

Gwyn A. Williams


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